Nolan RH, Gauthey A, Losso A, Medlyn BE, Smith R, Chhajed, SS, Fuller K, Song M, Li X, Beaumont LJ, Boer MM, Wright IJ, Choat B (2021), Hydraulic failure and tree size linked with canopy die‐back in eucalypt forest during extreme drought. New Phytologist. Accepted Author Manuscript. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17298
Oyanoghafo O, O’ Brien C, Choat B, Tissue DT, Rymer PD. (2021) Vulnerability to xylem cavitation of Hakea species (Proteaceae) from a range of biomes and life-histories predicted by climatic niche. Annals of Botany https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcab020
López R, Cano FJ, Martin‐StPaul NK, Cochard H, Choat B. (2021) Coordination of stem and leaf traits define different strategies to regulate water loss and tolerance ranges to aridity. New Phytologist 230: 497-509
Brodribb TJ, Powers J, Cochard H and Choat B. (2020) Hanging by a thread? Forests and drought. Science. 368:261-266.
De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Ukkola AM, Mu M, Sabot ME, Pitman AJ, Meir P, Cernusak LA, Rifai SW, Choat B, Tissue DT, Blackman CJ, Li X, Roderick M and Briggs PR (2020) Identifying areas at risk of drought‐induced tree mortality across South‐Eastern Australia. Global Change Biology. 26: 5716-5733.
Gauthey A, Peters JMR, Carins‐Murphy MR, Rodriguez‐Dominguez CM, Li X, Delzon S, King A, López R, Medlyn BE, Tissue DT, Choat B. (2020) Visual and hydraulic techniques produce similar estimates of cavitation resistance in woody species. New Phytologist 228: 884-897.
Jacob V, Zhang H, Churchill AC, Yang J, Choat B, Medlyn BE, Power SA and Tissue DT. (2020) Warming reduces net carbon gain and productivity in Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinacea. Agronomy 10: 1601.
Johnson KM, Brodersen C, Carins-Murphy MR, Choat B and Brodribb TJ. (2020) Xylem embolism spreads by single-conduit events in three dry forest angiosperm stems. Plant Physiology 184: 212-222.
Kattge J, Bönisch G, Díaz S, Lavorel S, Prentice IC, Leadley P, Tautenhahn S, Werner GD, Aakala T, Abedi M. et al. (2020) TRY plant trait database–enhanced coverage and open access. Global change biology 26: 119-188.
Li R, Lu Y, Peters JM, Choat B and Lee AJ. (2020) Non-invasive measurement of leaf water content and pressure–volume curves using terahertz radiation. Scientific Reports 10: 1-14.
Li X, Delzon S, Torres-Ruiz J, Badel E, Burlett R, Cochard H, Jansen S, King A, Lamarque LJ and Lenoir N. (2020) Lack of vulnerability segmentation in four angiosperm tree species: evidence from direct X-ray microtomography observation. Annals of Forest Science. 77:1-12.
Li X, He X, Smith R, Choat B and Tissue D. (2020) Temperature alters the response of hydraulic architecture to CO2 in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum). Environmental and Experimental Botany 172: 104004.
Li X, Smith R, Choat B and Tissue DT. (2020) Drought resistance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is promoted by early stomatal closure and leaf shedding. Functional Plant Biology 47: 91-98.
Nolan RH, Blackman CJ, de Dios VR, Choat B, Medlyn BE, Li X, Bradstock RA and Boer MM. (2020) Linking forest flammability and plant vulnerability to drought. Forests 11: 779.
Peters JMR, Gauthey A, Lopez R, Carins-Murphy MR, Brodribb TJ and Choat B. (2020) Non-invasive imaging reveals convergence in root and stem vulnerability to cavitation across five tree species. Journal of experimental botany 71: 6623-6637.
Blackman CJ, Li X, Choat B, Rymer PD, De Kauwe MG, Duursma RA, Tissue DT, Medlyn BE. (2019) Desiccation time during drought is highly predictable across species of Eucalyptus from contrasting climates. New Phytologist 224: 632-43.
Mencuccini M, Rosas T, Rowland L, Choat B, Cornelissen H, Jansen S, Kramer K, Lapenis A, Manzoni S, Niinemets Ü, Reich PB (2019). Leaf economics and plant hydraulics drive leaf: wood area ratios. New Phytologist 224: 1544-56.
Choat B, Nolf M, Lopez R, Peters JM, Carins-Murphy MR, Creek D, Brodribb TJ. (2019) Non-invasive imaging shows no evidence of embolism repair after drought in tree species of two genera. Tree Physiology 39: 113-21.
López R, Nolf M, Duursma RA, Badel E, Flavel RJ, Cochard H, Choat B. (2019) Mitigating the open vessel artefact in centrifuge-based measurement of embolism resistance. Tree Physiology 39: 143-55.
Earles JM, Buckley TN, Brodersen CR, Busch FA, Cano FJ, Choat B, Evans JR, Farquhar GD, Harwood R, Huynh M, John GP, Miller ML, Rockwell FE, Sack L, Scoffoni C, Struik PC, Wu A, Yin X, Barbour MM (2019) Embracing 3D Complexity in Leaf Carbon–Water Exchange. Trends in Plant Science 24:15-24.
Li, X, Blackman, CJ, Peters, JMR, Choat B, Rymer, PD, Medlyn BE, Tissue DT (2019) More than iso/anisohydry: Hydroscapes integrate plant water use and drought tolerance traits in 10 Eucalypt species from contrasting climates. Functional Ecology 33: 1035-49
Li X, Blackman CJ, Choat B, Rymer P, Medlyn B, Tissue D. (2019) Drought tolerance traits do not vary across sites differing in water availability in Banksia serrata (Proteaceae). Functional Plant Biology 46: 624-633
Blackman CJ, Creek D, Maier C, Aspinwall MJ, Drake JE, Pfautsch S, O’Grady A, Delzon S, Medlyn BE, Tissue DT and Choat B (2019) Drought response strategies and hydraulic traits contribute to mechanistic understanding of plant dry-down to hydraulic failure. Tree physiology 39: 910-24
Creek D, Blackman C, Brodribb TJ, Choat B, Tissue DT. (2018) Coordination between leaf, stem and root hydraulics and gas exchange in three arid‐zone angiosperms during severe drought and recovery. Plant, cell & environment https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13418
Lamarque LJ, Corso D, Torres-Ruiz JM, Badel E, Brodribb TJ, Burlett R, Charrier G, Choat B, Cochard H, Gambetta GA, Jansen S, King A, Lenoir N, Martin-StPaul N, Steppe K, Van den Bulcke J, Zhang Y, Delzon S. (2018) An inconvenient truth about xylem resistance to embolism in the model species for refilling Laurus nobilis L. Annals of Forest Science 75: 88
Link RM, Schuldt B, Choat B, Jansen S, Cobb AR (2018) Maximum-likelihood estimation of xylem vessel length distributions. Journal of Theoretical Biology 455: 329–341
Choat B, Brodribb TJ, Brodersen CR, Duursma RA, López R, Medlyn BE. (2018) Triggers of tree mortality under drought. Nature 558:531-539
Anderegg, WR, Wolf A, Arango‐Velez A, Choat B, Chmura DJ, Jansen S, Kolb T, Li, S, Meinzer FC, Pita P, Resco de Dios V, Sperry JS, Wolfe BT, Pacala S. (2018) Woody plants optimise stomatal behaviour relative to hydraulic risk. Ecology Letters doi:10.1111/ele.12962
Li X, Blackman CJ, Rymer PD, Quintans D, Duursma RA, Choat B, Medlyn BE, Tissue DT. (2018) Xylem embolism measured retrospectively is linked to canopy dieback in natural populations of Eucalyptus piperita following drought. Tree Physiology tpy052
Taylor SH, Aspinwall MJ, Blackman CJ, Choat B, Tissue DT, Ghannoum O. (2018) CO2 availability influences hydraulic function of C3 and C4 grass leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany 69: 2731-41.
Li X, Blackman CJ, Choat B, Duursma RA, Rymer PD, Medlyn BE, Tissue DT (2018) Tree hydraulic traits are co-ordinated and strongly linked to climate-of-origin across a rainfall gradient. Plant, Cell & Environment 41: 646–660
Drake JE, Tjoelker MG, Vårhammar A, Medlyn BE, Reich PB, Leigh A, Pfautsch S, Blackman CJ, López R Aspinwall MJ, Crous KY, Duursma RA, Kumarathunge D, De Kauwe MG, Jiang M, Nicotra AB, Tissue DT, Choat B, Atkin OK, BartonCVM. (2018). Trees tolerate an extreme heatwave via increased transpirational cooling and thermal tolerance. Global Change Biology 24: 2390-2402
Drake JE, Power SA, Duursma RA, Medlyn BE, Aspinwall MJ, Choat B, Creek D, Eamus D, Maier C, Pfautsch S, Smith RA, Tjoelker MG, Tissue DT (2017) Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis for four tree species under drought: A comparison of model formulations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 247: 454-466
Anderegg WR, Wolf A, Arango-Velez A, Choat B, Chmura DJ, Jansen S, Kolb T, Li S, Meinzer F, Pita P, de Dios VR. (2017). Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models. PloS one. 12:e0185481.
Pereira L, Domingues-Junior AP, Jansen S, Choat B, & Mazzafera P. (2017) Is embolism resistance in plant xylem associated with quantity and characteristics of lignin?. Trees doi:10.1007/s00468-017-1574-y
Torres-Ruiz JM, Cochard H, Choat B, Jansen S, López R, Tomášková I, Padilla-Díaz CM, Badel E, Burlett R, King A, Lenoir N, Martin-StPaul NK and Delzon S. (2017) Xylem resistance to embolism: presenting a simple diagnostic test for the open vessel artefact. New Phytologist doi: 10.1111/nph.14589
Bourne AE, Creek D, Peters JMR, Ellsworth DS, Choat B. (2017) Species climate range influences hydraulic and stomatal traits in Eucalyptus species. Annals of Botany doi:10.1093/aob/mcx020
Nolf M, Lopez R, Peters JMR, Flavel RJ, Koloadin L, Young IM, Choat B (2017) Visualisation of xylem embolism by X-ray microtomography: a direct test against hydraulic measurements. New Phytologist doi: 10.1111/nph.14462
Skelton RP, Brodribb TJ, Choat B. (2017) Casting light on xylem vulnerability in an herbaceous species reveals a lack of segmentation. New Phytologist 10.1111/nph.14450
Duursma R & Choat B. (2017) fitplc-an R package to fit hydraulic vulnerability curves. Journal of Plant Hydraulics, 4, 002.
Mencuccini M, Salmon Y, Mitchell P, Hölttä T, Choat B, Meir P, O’Grady A, Tissue D, Zweifel R, Sevanto S, Pfautsch S. (2017) An empirical method that separates irreversible stem radial growth from bark water content changes in trees: theory and case studies. Plant, Cell & Environment DOI: 10.1111/pce.12863
Christoffersen BO, Gloor M, Fauset S, Fyllas NM, Galbraith DR, Baker TR, Rowland L, Fisher RA, Binks OJ, Sevanto SA, Xu C, Jansen S, Choat B, Mencuccini M, McDowell NG, Meir P. (2016) Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro), Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-128
Bartlett MK, Klein T, Jansen S, Choat B, Sack L (2016) The correlations and sequence of plant stomatal, hydraulic, and wilting responses to drought. PNAS doi:10.1073/pnas.1604088113
Charrier G, Torres-Ruiz JM, Badel E, Burlett R, Choat B, Cochard H, Delmas CE, Domec JC, Jansen S, King A, Lenoir N, Martin-StPaul N, Gambetta GA, Delzon S.(2016) Evidence for hydraulic vulnerability segmentation and lack of xylem refilling under tension. Plant Physiology pp-01079
López R, Francisco JC, Choat B, Cochard H, Gil L (2016) Plasticity in vulnerability to cavitation of Pinus canariensis occurs only at the driest end of an aridity gradient. Frontiers in Plant Science 7: 769
Gleason SM, Westoby M, Jansen S, Choat B, Brodribb TJ, Cochard H, … & Zanne AE. (2016) On research priorities to advance understanding of the safety-efficiency tradeoff in xylem. A response to Bittencourt et al. New Phytologist 10.1111/nph.14043
Blackman CJ, Pfautsch S, Choat B, Delzon S, Gleason S, Duursma R. (2016) Toward an index of desiccation time to tree mortality under drought. Plant, Cell and Environment DOI 10.1111/pce.12758
Dijkstra FA, Carrillo Y, Maier C, Aspinwall MJ, Canarini A, Duursma, RA, Choat B, Tissue DT (2016) Water, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies by four tree species in response to water and nutrient additions. Plant and Soil DOI 10.1007/s11104-016-2873-6
Anderegg WR, Klein T, Bartlett M, Sack L, Pellegrini AF, Choat B, Jansen S. (2016) Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe. PNAS 113: 5024-5029
Bouche PS, Delzon S, Choat B, Badel E, Brodribb TJ, Burlett R, Cochard H, Charra‐Vaskou K, Lavigne B, Li S, Mayr S. (2016) Are needles of Pinus pinaster more vulnerable to xylem embolism than branches? New insights from X‐ray computed tomography. Plant, Cell & Environment doi:10.1111/pce.12680
Choat B, Badel E, Burlett R, Delzon S, Cochard H, and Jansen S. (2016) Non-invasive measurement of vulnerability to drought induced embolism by X-ray microtomography. Plant Physiology 170: 273–282
Li S, Feifel M, Karimi Z, Schuldt B, Choat B, Jansen S. (2016) Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought. Tree Physiology tpv047
Gleason SM, Westoby M, Jansen S, Choat B, Hacke UG, Pratt RB, … & Zanne AE. (2015). Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem‐specific hydraulic efficiency across the world’s woody plant species. New Phytologist 209: 123-136
Duan, H., O’Grady, A. P., Duursma, R. A., Choat, B., Huang, G., Smith, R. A., … & Tissue, D. T. (2015). Drought responses of two gymnosperm species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies under elevated [CO2] and temperature. Tree physiology, tpv047
Nolf M, Creek D, Duursma R, Holtum J, Mayr S, Choat B (2015). Stem and leaf hydraulic properties are finely coordinated in three tropical rainforest tree species. Plant, Cell & Environment 38: 2652–2661
Simonin KA, Burns E, Choat B, Barbour MM, Dawson TE, & Franks PJ (2015). Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf. Journal of Experimental Botany, eru481
Jansen S, Schuldt B, Choat B. (2015). Current controversies and challenges in applying plant hydraulic techniques. New Phytologist 205: 961-964
Torres-Ruiz JM, Jansen S, Choat B, McElrone A, Cochard H, Brodribb TJ, … Delzon S. (2015). Direct micro-CT observation confirms the induction of embolism upon xylem cutting under tension. Plant physiology 167: 40-43
Choat B, Brodersen CR, & McElrone, AJ (2015). Synchrotron X‐ray microtomography of xylem embolism in Sequoia sempervirens saplings during cycles of drought and recovery. New Phytologist 205: 1095-1105
Scholz A, Stein A, Choat B, Jansen S (2014). How drought and deciduousness shape xylem plasticity in three Costa Rican woody plant species. IAWA Journal 35: 337–355.
Brodersen CR, Jansen S, Choat B, Rico, C, Pittermann J. (2014) Cavitation resistance in seedless vascular plants: the structure and function of interconduit pit membranes. Plant Physiology 165: 895-904
Duan H, Duursma RA, Huang G, Smith RA, Choat B, O’Grady AP, & Tissue, DT (2014). Elevated [CO2] does not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings. Plant, cell & environment 37: 1598–1613
Martorell S, Diaz-Espejo A, Medrano H, Ball MC, Choat B (2014) Rapid hydraulic recovery in Eucalyptus pauciflora after drought: linkages between stem hydraulics and leaf gas exchange. Plant, Cell and Environment 37: 617-626
Duan H, Amthor JS, Duursma RA, O’Grady AP, Choat B, Tissue DT (2013) Carbon dynamics of eucalypt seedlings exposed to prolonged drought in elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature. Tree Physiology 33: 779-792
Cochard H, Badel E, Herbette S, Delzon S, Choat B, Jansen S. (2013) Methods for measuring plant vulnerability to cavitation: a critical review. Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 4779-4791
Choat B (2013) Predicting thresholds of drought-induced mortality in woody plant species. Tree Physiology 33: 669-671
Pfautsch S, Aspinwall M, Drake J, Choat B, Tissue D, Burykin T, Tjoelker M. (2013) Putting the puzzle together: Investigating hydraulic functioning and water transport at high spatial resolution in tall trees. Acta Horticulturae 991: 245-252
Brodersen CR, McElrone AJ, Choat B, Lee EF, Shackel KA, Matthews MA (2013) In vivo visualizations of drought-induced embolism spread in Vitis vinifera. Plant Physiology 161: 1820-1829
McElrone AJ, Choat B, Parkinson D, MacDowell A, Brodersen CR. (2013) Utilization of high resolution computed tomography to visualize the three dimensional structure and function of plant vasculature. Journal of Visualized Experiments 74: e50162, doi:10.3791/50162
Brodersen C, Choat B, Chatelet D, Shackel KA, Matthews MA, McElrone AJ (2013). Conductive xylem bridges contribute differentially to radial connectivity in grapevine stems (Vitis vinifera and V. arizonica). American Journal of Botany 100: 314-321
Choat B, Jansen S, Brodribb TJ, Cochard H, Delzon S, Bhaskar R, Bucci S, Feild TS, Gleason SM, Hacke UG, Jacobsen AL, Lens F, Maherali H, Martínez-Vilalta J, Mayr S, Mencuccini M, Mitchell PJ, Nardini A, Pittermann J, Pratt RB, Sperry JS, Westoby M, Wright IJ, Zanne AE. (2012) Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature 491: 752–755
McElrone AJ, Brodersen CR, Alsina MM, Drayton WM, Matthews MA, Shackel KA, Wada H, Zufferey V, Choat B. (2012) Centrifuge technique consistently overestimates vulnerability to water stress-induced cavitation in grapevines as confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography. New Phytologist 196: 661–665
Melcher PJ, Holbrook NM, Burns MJ, Zwieniecki MA, Cobb AR, Brodribb TJ, Choat B and Sack L. (2012) Field measurements of stem xylem hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory and field. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3: 685-694
Wada H, Matthews MA, Choat B, Shackel KA. (2011) In situ turgor stability in grape mesocarp cells and its relation to cell dimensions and microcapillary tip size and geometry. Environmental Control in Biology 49: 61-73
Choat B, Medek DE, Stuart SA, Pasquet-Kok J, Egerton JJG, Salari H, Sack L, Ball MC. (2011) Xylem traits mediate a trade-off between resistance to freeze/thaw-induced embolism and photosynthetic capacity in overwintering evergreens. New Phytologist 191: 996–1005
Brodersen C, Lee EF, Choat B, Jansen S, Phillips, RJ, Shackel KA, McElrone AJ, Matthews MA. (2011) Automated analysis of 3D xylem networks using high resolution computed tomography. New Phytologist 191: 1168–1179
Lens F, Sperry JS, Christman MA, Choat B, Rabaey D, Jansen S. (2011) Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer. New Phytologist 190: 709–723
Brodersen C, McElrone AJ, Choat B, Matthews MA, Shackel KA. (2010) The dynamics of embolism repair in xylem: in vivo visualizations using High Resolution Computed Tomography. Plant Physiology 154: 1088–1095
Sack L, Cornwell WK, Santiago LS, Barbour MM, Choat B, Evans JR, Munns R, Nicotra, A. (2010) A unique web resource for physiology, ecology and the environmental sciences: PrometheusWiki. Functional Plant Biology 37: 687-693
Pittermann J, Choat B, Jansen S, Stuart SA, Lynn L and Dawson T. (2010) The relationships between xylem safety and hydraulic efficiency in the Cupressaceae: the evolution of pit membrane form and function. Plant Physiology 153: 1919–1931
Choat B, Drayton WM, Brodersen C, Matthews MA, Shackel KA, Wada H, McElrone AJ. (2010) Measurement of vulnerability to water-stress induced cavitation in grapevine: a comparison of four techniques applied to a long-vesseled species. Plant Cell and Environment 33: 1502-1512
Choat B, Gambetta GA, Shackel KA, Matthews MA (2009). Vascular function in grape berries across development and its relevance to apparent hydraulic isolation. Plant Physiology 151: 1677–1687
Choat B, Gambetta GA, Wada H, Shackel KA, Matthews MA (2009). The effects of Pierce’s disease on leaf and petiole hydraulic conductance in Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay. Physiologia Plantarum 136: 384–394
Choat B, Pittermann, J. (2009). New insights into bordered pit structure and cavitation resistance in angiosperms and conifers. New Phytologist 182: 557–560
Jansen S, Choat B, Pletsers A. (2009). Morphological variation of intervessel pit membranes and implications to xylem function in angiosperms. American Journal of Botany 96: 409-419
Choat B, Cobb AR, Jansen S (2008). Tansley Review: Structure and function of bordered pits: new discoveries and impacts on whole plant hydraulic function. New Phytologist 177: 608-625
Choat B, Sack L, Holbrook NM. (2007). Diversity of hydraulic traits in nine Cordia species growing in tropical rainforests with contrasting precipitation. New Phytologist 175: 686-698
Cobb AR, Choat B, Holbrook NM. (2007). Dynamics of freeze-thaw embolism in Smilax rotundifolia (Smilacaceae). American Journal of Botany 94: 640–649
Jansen S, Sano Y, Choat B, Rabaey D, Lens F, Dute RR. (2007). Pit membranes in tracheary elements of Rosaceae and related families: new records of tori and pseudo-tori. American Journal of Botany 94: 503–514
Stuart SA, Choat B, Martin K, Holbrook NM and Ball MC. (2007). The role of freezing in defining the latitudinal limits of mangrove forests. New Phytologist 173: 576-583
Choat B, Brodie TW, Cobb AR, Zwieniecki MA, Holbrook NM. (2006). Direct measurements of intervessel pit membrane hydraulic resistance in two angiosperm tree species. American Journal of Botany 93: 993-1000
Choat B, Ball MC, Luly JG, Donnelly C, Holtum JAM. (2006). Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rainforest trees of contrasting leaf phenology. Tree Physiology 26: 657-664
Lovelock CE, Ball MC, Choat B, Holbrook NM, Feller IC. (2006). Linking physiological processes with patterns in mangrove forest structure: Phosphorus deficiency limits canopy development, hydraulic conductivity and photosynthetic carbon gain in dwarf Rhizophora mangle. Plant, Cell and Environment 29: 793-802
Choat B, Lahr E, Melcher PJ, Zwieniecki MA, Holbrook NM. (2005). The spatial pattern of air seeding thresholds in mature sugar maple trees. Plant, Cell and Environment 28: 1082–1089
Choat B, Ball MC, Luly JG, Holtum JAM. (2005). Hydraulic architecture of deciduous and evergreen dry rainforest tree species from north-eastern Australia. Trees – Structure and Function 19: 305–311
Choat B, Jansen S, Zwieniecki MA, Smets E, Holbrook NM. (2004). Changes in pit membrane porosity due to deflection and stretching: the role of vestured pits. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 1569 – 1575
Jansen S, Choat B, Vinckier S, Lens F, Schols P, Smets E. (2004). Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera. New Phytologist 163: 51-59
Choat B, Ball M, Luly J, Holtum J. (2003). Pit membrane porosity and water stress-induced cavitation in four co-existing dry rainforest tree species. Plant Physiology 131: 41-48